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By John G. Webster (Editor)

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Ultrasound does so by enhancing the transport of reactants. Experiments in vitro demonstrate that ultrasound increases transport of plasminogen activators both into and within thrombi (111,112). This is important because transport of reactants into and within thrombi is a ratelimiting step in fibrinolysis in vitro and in vivo (113,114). The physical mechanism or mechanisms responsible for enhancing of fibrinolysis are unknown, but bulk heating alone is not a sufficient explanation (115). Cavitation could be important in systems exposed to air.

Subdermal Implants. Another approach to targeted drug delivery with ultrasound involves a drug-soaked matrix implanted subdermally near the tissue or circulation system of interest, whose contents are released and/or activated via extracorporeal applications of ultrasound. In an example (138), Kost et al.

003 s to clear the space around a vibrating bubble out to two resting radii from the center of the bubble, leaving a central bubble surrounded by a dense, close clump of cells. Ignoring the gastrointestinal tract and lungs, bubbles are not ordinarily present within mammalian tissue (22,34,35), but can and have been introduced for a variety of purposes, as we discuss later. This means that without their introduction, for medical ultrasound to be dangerous in vivo it must initiate and stimulate acoustic bubbles.

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61.Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control by John G. Webster (Editor)

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