By Andrew Sneddon
What makes an occasion count number as an motion? normal solutions entice the way the development was once produced: e.g., probably an arm move is an motion whilst brought on by psychological states (in specific ways), yet now not whilst triggered in alternative routes. Andrew Sneddon argues that this kind of solution, which he calls "productionism", is methodologically and considerably fallacious. particularly, productionist solutions to this query are typically both individualistic or foundationalist, or either, with out particular defence. in its place, Sneddon deals an externalist, anti-foundationalist account of what makes an occasion count number as an motion, which he calls neo-ascriptivism, after the paintings of H.L.A. Hart. particularly, Sneddon argues that our practices of attributing ethical accountability to one another are a minimum of partially constitutive of occasions as activities.
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What makes an occasion count number as an motion? standard solutions attract the best way the development used to be produced: e. g. , maybe an arm move is an motion while brought on by psychological states (in specific ways), yet no longer while prompted in alternative ways. Andrew Sneddon argues that this sort of resolution, which he calls "productionism", is methodologically and considerably fallacious.
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Extra resources for Action and Responsibility
44 CHAPTER 3 however, soften this problem for narrow ascriptivism. First, when someone is alone, they do not shrug off their social context. 65 Second, we routinely ascribe responsibility— both praise and blame—to ourselves for events. This combination of facts suggests that solitary events in which there is no interpersonal ascription of responsibility pose no problem even to narrow ascriptivism. , scratching, even when no one else is or could be bothered by this particular event. The wide ascriptivist is inclined to chime in at this point and note that even if the narrow ascriptivist did not ascribe responsibility to him/herself for scratching, if they reflected on the event after the fact they would see that they could have.
This possibility in turn yields the possibility that certain events count as actions in some social contexts, but not in others. This, as it turns out, differs greatly from productionist theories of action. The reason is that productionist answers to the status question treat the role of action ascriptions in moral contexts as accidental. By contrast, ascriptivism treats such roles as essential to what it is to be an action. Given this difference between the ascriptivist candidate for a criterion of action and rival criteria, we are faced with the following two options.
J. E. Atwell has attacked the notion of the accordion-effect with counterexamples, but the criticisms miss this socio-pragmatic aspect of the concept. 57 Although the promotion is a causal consequence of what X has done, no one would be tempted to puff out the description of X’s action to the form ‘X promoted Z’. This is true, but it omits important aspects of the social framework in which promotion occurs, so it distorts the accordion-effect thesis. Promotion is not something just anyone can do: it is a function that occurs in the workplace and can be performed only by superiors on subordinates.
Action and Responsibility by Andrew Sneddon