By Cecilia A. Conrad, John Whitehead, Patrick L. Mason, James Stewart
The forty-three chapters in African american citizens within the U.S. financial system specialize in numerous facets of the industrial prestige of African americans, previous and current. Taken jointly, those essays current similar topics: first, by way of economics, race concerns; moment, racial fiscal discrimination and inequality persist regardless of the positive predictions of ordinary monetary research that racial discrimination can't thrive in a free-market economic climate.
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Extra info for African Americans in the U.S. Economy
Hours worked declined for all age–gender cohorts, and “the cumulative effect was quite spectacular,” with the decline in hours ranging “between 28 and 37 percent per capita” (6). However, Fogel notes that “by 1880 the labor force participation rate of blacks was probably quite close to prewar levels” (1989, 100). Moreover, “black and white farmers, equally endowed with capital and land, were equally productive in 28 JAMES B. STEWART the 1880s and 1890s,” and “whether black or white, farmers who toiled on small farms after the war were considerably less productive than the gang-system laborers of prewar times” (100).
S. S. whites during the late antebellum era” (1989, 144). Fogel also contends that the available evidence indicates that surviving infants were disproportionately undersized and that small babies failed “to exhibit much catch up growth between birth and age 3 [suggesting] chronic undernourishment during these ages” (143). Infants’ postnatal problems originated with the malnourishment of pregnant women who were subjected to “the intense routine of the gang system down to the eve of childbirth” (145).
In 1860” (75). Slave owners used a combination of methods to extract desired levels of output from enslaved laborers. One technique involved altering the capital:labor ratio to increase labor productivity. Mark Smith notes that beginning in the 1830s planters attempted to “modernize slavery through the introduction of labor-saving equipment and modern management techniques” (1998, 10). Robert Fogel and Stanley Engerman maintain “expenditures on farming implements and machinery per improved acre were 25% higher in 24 JAMES B.
African Americans in the U.S. Economy by Cecilia A. Conrad, John Whitehead, Patrick L. Mason, James Stewart