By Robert B. Ewen
Meant as an higher point undergraduate and/pr graduate point textual content for classes on theories of character, character concept, character, or psychology of character. It presents an creation to the information of crucial character theorist
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Theories of Personality: 6th Edition
For behaving in such acceptable ways, the superego rewards the ego with feelings of pride and virtue. Unfortunately, psychic life is rarely this pleasant. Much of the superego lies in the unconscious, where it is intimately related to the id. It condemns the id’s illicit impulses as severely as actual misdeeds, but can directly inﬂuence only the ego. Therefore, both forbidden impulses and unacceptable behaviors cause tension to be generated between the superego and the CAPSULE SUMMARY The Structure of Personality (Freud) Id Ego Present at birth.
Anxiety may also be displaced, as when a child who is victimized by abusive parents shies away from people in general. In contrast, the defense mechanism of projection conceals dangerous impulses by unconsciously attributing them to other people or things (Freud, 1912–1913/1950, pp. 61ff; 1922/1963m). For example, projected anger may lead to the belief that you are disliked, hated, or being persecuted by other people. In displacement, you know that you are angry and choose a safer target; in projection, you repress your anger and believe that other people are angry at you.
So long as most of the libido reaches the genital stage, no great harm is done. But if traumatic events occur during a pregenital stage, such as harsh attempts at weaning or overly severe punishment during toilet training, excessive amounts of libido will become ﬁxated at that stage. The child will reject further development, and will demand the satisfactions that have been withheld. Excessive ﬁxations can also be caused by overindulgence, as by allowing the child to engage in too much thumb sucking.
An Introduction to Theories of Personality: 6th Edition by Robert B. Ewen